A flap is a vascularized tissue that is mobilized from adjoining donor site and transferred to defect for reconstructive surgical procedure. This tissue is still attached to the body by a major artery and vein at its base. The flap used is comprised of skin and fatty tissue but this can also include muscle from the donor site which is the area from which the flap is raised.A rotation flap procedure is mostly used to fill in a defect due to an injury like from burns or from problems as severe bedsores and skin ulcers or for people who have had cancer surgery on their face and scalp or perhaps following a mastectomy.
Rotation flaps have long been utilized in plastic and general surgery for the reconstruction of truncal wounds including pilonidal excisions and for the reconstruction of facial wounds. This Flap technique can also produce excellent results in facial reconstruction after skin cancer excision.Rotation flap technique may involve pure rotation or combinations of rotation and advancement.
Well-designed and well-executed rotation flaps create scar lines that are hidden along facial boundaries or within relaxed skin tension lines. The repairs made with this technique can be quite elegant. One of the most important decisions doctors related to the rotation flap procedure is determining whether or not the donor site has an adequate blood supply. Some areas of the body are very well suited to this procedure, like the scalp, face, hands and torso. Other areas like the lower legs, do not have an abundant blood supply and a rotation flap used in these areas can be unsuccessful.
Rotation flap has the advantage of providing tissue that matches very well with the defect area. Rotation flap procedures has found numerous applications like to reconstruct a large primary defect, to replace tissue loss during trauma or surgical excision, to provide padding over bony prominences, to bring in better blood supply to poorly vascularized areas or also to improve sensation to an area.For the closure of an operative wound, rotation is the simplest method of bringing in laxity from multiple directions thereby allowing redirection of wound closure tension. Rotation flaps are especially best in the closure of scalp when the flaps are really long, for the temple, and cheek defects and these are also quite valuable on the nose as well.
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